Entire Section


    • C.1 Responsibilities of directors

      • Principle

        Every director must always know their responsibilities as a director of an issuer and its conduct, business activities and development. Given the essential unitary nature of the board, non-executive directors have the same duties of care and skill and fiduciary duties as executive directors.

      • Code Provisions

        • C.1.1

          Newly appointed directors of an issuer should receive a comprehensive, formal and tailored induction on appointment. Subsequently they should receive any briefing and professional development necessary to ensure that they have a proper understanding of the issuer’s operations and business and are fully aware of their responsibilities under statute and common law, the Exchange Listing Rules, legal and other regulatory requirements and the issuer’s business and governance policies.

          • C.1.2

            The functions of non-executive directors should include:
            (a)    participating in board meetings to bring an independent judgement to bear on issues of strategy, policy, performance, accountability, resources, key appointments and standards of conduct;
            (b)    taking the lead where potential conflicts of interests arise;
            (c)    serving on the audit, remuneration, nomination and other governance committees, if invited; and
            (d)    scrutinising the issuer’s performance in achieving agreed corporate goals and objectives, and monitoring performance reporting.

            • C.1.3

              The board should establish written guidelines no less exacting than the Model Code for relevant employees in respect of their dealings in the issuer’s securities. “Relevant employee” includes any employee or a director or employee of a subsidiary or holding company who, because of such office or employment, is likely to possess inside information in relation to the issuer or its securities.

            • C.1.4

              All directors should participate in continuous professional development to develop and refresh their knowledge and skills. This is to ensure that their contribution to the board remains informed and relevant. The issuer should be responsible for arranging and funding suitable training, placing an appropriate emphasis on the roles, functions and duties of a listed company director.

              Note:    Directors should provide a record of the training they received to the issuer.

            • C.1.5

              Directors should disclose to the issuer at the time of their appointments, and in a timely manner for any changes, the number and nature of offices held in public companies or organisations and other significant commitments. The identity of the public companies or organisations and an indication of the time involved should also be disclosed. The board should determine for itself how frequently this disclosure should be made.

            • C.1.6

              Independent non-executive directors and other non-executive directors, as equal board members, should give the board and any committees on which they serve the benefit of their skills, expertise and varied backgrounds and qualifications through regular attendance and active participation. Generally they should also attend general meetings to gain and develop a balanced understanding of the views of shareholders.

              Note:    Non-executive directors’ attendance at general meetings is important. An independent non-executive director is often the chairman or a member of board committees and as such, the individual should be accountable to shareholders by being available to respond to questions and enquiries in relation to their work. Without attending general meetings, the director will not be able to develop a balanced understanding of the views of shareholders.

            • C.1.7

              Independent non-executive directors and other non-executive directors should make a positive contribution to the development of the issuer’s strategy and policies through independent, constructive and informed comments.

            • C.1.8

              An issuer should arrange appropriate insurance cover in respect of legal action against its directors.

    • C.2 Chairman and Chief Executive

      • Principle

        There are two key aspects of the management of every issuer – the management of the board and the day-to-day management of business. There should be a clear division of these responsibilities to ensure a balance of power and authority, so that power is not concentrated in any one individual.

      • Code Provisions

        • C.2.1

          The roles of chairman and chief executive should be separate and should not be performed by the same individual. The division of responsibilities between the chairman and chief executive should be clearly established and set out in writing.

        • C.2.2

          The chairman should ensure that all directors are properly briefed on issues arising at board meetings.

        • C.2.3

          The chairman should be responsible for ensuring that directors receive, in a timely manner, adequate information, which must be accurate, clear, complete and reliable.

        • C.2.4

          One of the important roles of the chairman is to provide leadership for the board. The chairman should ensure that the board works effectively and performs its responsibilities, and that all key and appropriate issues are discussed by it in a timely manner. The chairman should be primarily responsible for drawing up and approving the agenda for each board meeting. The chairman should take into account, where appropriate, any matters proposed by the other directors for inclusion in the agenda. The chairman may delegate this responsibility to a designated director or the company secretary.

        • C.2.5

          The chairman should take primary responsibility for ensuring that good corporate governance practices and procedures are established.

        • C.2.6

          The chairman should encourage all directors to make a full and active contribution to the board’s affairs and take the lead to ensure that it acts in the best interests of the issuer. The chairman should encourage directors with different views to voice their concerns, allow sufficient time for discussion of issues and ensure that board decisions fairly reflect board consensus.

        • C.2.7

          The chairman should at least annually hold meetings with the independent non-executive directors without the presence of other directors.

        • C.2.8

          The chairman should ensure that appropriate steps are taken to provide effective communication with shareholders and that their views are communicated to the board as a whole.

        • C.2.9

          The chairman should promote a culture of openness and debate by facilitating the effective contribution of non-executive directors in particular and ensuring constructive relations between executive and non-executive directors.

    • C.3 Management functions

      • Principle

        An issuer should have a formal schedule of matters specifically reserved for board approval. The board should give clear directions to management on the matters that must be approved by it before decisions are made on the issuer’s behalf.

      • Code Provisions

        • C.3.1

          When the board delegates aspects of its management and administration functions to management, it must, at the same time, give clear directions as to the management’s powers, in particular, where management should report back and obtain prior board approval before making decisions or entering into any commitments on the issuer’s behalf.

          Note:    The board should not delegate matters to a board committee, executive directors or management to an extent that would significantly hinder or reduce the ability of the board as a whole to perform its functions.

        • C.3.2

          An issuer should formalise the functions reserved to the board and those delegated to management. It should review those arrangements periodically to ensure that they remain appropriate to the issuer’s needs.

        • C.3.3

          Directors should clearly understand delegation arrangements in place. Issuers should have formal letters of appointment for directors setting out the key terms and conditions of their appointment.

    • C.4 Board Committees

      • Principle

        Board committees should be formed with specific written terms of reference which deal clearly with their authority and duties.

      • Code Provisions

        • C.4.1

          Where board committees are established to deal with matters, the board should give them sufficiently clear terms of reference to enable them to perform their functions properly.

        • C.4.2

          The terms of reference of board committees should require them to report back to the board on their decisions or recommendations, unless there are legal or regulatory restrictions on their ability to do so (such as a restriction on disclosure due to regulatory requirements).

    • C.5 Conduct of board proceedings and supply of and access to information

      • Principle

        The issuer should ensure directors can participate in board proceedings in a meaningful and effective manner. Directors should be provided in a timely manner with appropriate information in the form and quality to enable them to make an informed decision and perform their duties and responsibilities.

      • Code Provisions

        • C.5.1

          The board should meet regularly and board meetings should be held at least four times a year at approximately quarterly intervals. It is expected regular board meetings will normally involve the active participation, either in person or through electronic means of communication, of a majority of directors entitled to be present. So, a regular meeting does not include obtaining board consent through circulating written resolutions.

        • C.5.2

          Arrangements should be in place to ensure that all directors are given an opportunity to include matters in the agenda for regular board meetings.

        • C.5.3

          Notice of at least 14 days should be given of a regular board meeting to give all directors an opportunity to attend. For all other board meetings, reasonable notice should be given.

        • C.5.4

          Minutes of board meetings and meetings of board committees should be kept by a duly appointed secretary of the meeting and should be open for inspection at any reasonable time on reasonable notice by any director.

        • C.5.5

          Minutes of board meetings and meetings of board committees should record in sufficient detail the matters considered and decisions reached, including any concerns raised by directors or dissenting views expressed. Draft and final versions of minutes should be sent to all directors for their comment and records respectively, within a reasonable time after the board meeting is held.

        • C.5.6

          There should be a procedure agreed by the board to enable directors, upon reasonable request, to seek independent professional advice in appropriate circumstances, at the issuer’s expense. The board should resolve to provide separate independent professional advice to directors to assist them perform their duties to the issuer.

        • C.5.7

          If a substantial shareholder or a director has a conflict of interest in a matter to be considered by the board which the board has determined to be material, the matter should be dealt with by a physical board meeting rather than a written resolution. Independent non-executive directors who, and whose close associates, have no material interest in the transaction should be present at that board meeting.
          Note:    Subject to the issuer’s constitutional documents, and the laws and regulations of its place of incorporation, attendance by a director at a meeting by electronic means such as telephonic or videoconferencing may be counted as physical attendance.

        • C.5.8

          For regular board meetings, and as far as practicable in all other cases, an agenda and accompanying board papers should be sent, in full, to all directors. These should be sent in a timely manner and at least 3 days before the intended date of a board or board committee meeting (or other agreed period).

        • C.5.9

          Management has an obligation to supply the board and its committees with adequate information, in a timely manner, to enable it to make informed decisions. The information supplied must be complete and reliable. To fulfil their duties properly, directors may not, in all circumstances, be able to rely purely on information provided voluntarily by management and they may need to make further enquiries. Where any director requires more information than is volunteered by management, that director should make further enquiries where necessary. So, the board and individual directors should have separate and independent access to the issuer’s senior management.

        • C.5.10

          All directors are entitled to have access to board papers and related materials. These papers and related materials should be in a form and quality sufficient to enable the board to make informed decisions on matters placed before it. Queries raised by directors should receive a prompt and full response, if possible.


      • Principle

        The company secretary plays an important role in supporting the board by ensuring good information flow within the board and that board policy and procedures are followed. The company secretary is responsible for advising the board through the chairman and/or the chief executive on governance matters and should also facilitate induction and professional development of directors.

      • Code Provisions

        • C.6.1

          The company secretary should be an employee of the issuer and have day-to-day knowledge of the issuer’s affairs. Where an issuer engages an external service provider as its company secretary, it should disclose the identity of a person with sufficient seniority (e.g. chief legal counsel or chief financial officer) at the issuer whom the external provider can contact.

        • C.6.2

          The board should approve the selection, appointment or dismissal of the company secretary.
          Note:   A board meeting should be held to discuss the appointment and dismissal of the company secretary and the matter should be dealt with by a physical board meeting rather than a written resolution.

        • C.6.3

          The company secretary should report to the board chairman and/or the chief executive.

        • C.6.4

          All directors should have access to the advice and services of the company secretary to ensure that board procedures, and all applicable law, rules and regulations, are followed.