Entire Section


    • A.1 The Board

      • Principle

        An issuer should be headed by an effective board which should assume responsibility for its leadership and control and be collectively responsible for promoting its success by directing and supervising its affairs. Directors should take decisions objectively in the best interests of the issuer.

        The board should regularly review the contribution required from a director to perform his responsibilities to the issuer, and whether he is spending sufficient time performing them.

      • Code Provisions

        • A.1.1

          The board should meet regularly and board meetings should be held at least four times a year at approximately quarterly intervals. It is expected regular board meetings will normally involve the active participation, either in person or through electronic means of communication, of a majority of directors entitled to be present. So, a regular meeting does not include obtaining board consent through circulating written resolutions.

        • A.1.2

          Arrangements should be in place to ensure that all directors are given an opportunity to include matters in the agenda for regular board meetings.

        • A.1.3

          Notice of at least 14 days should be given of a regular board meeting to give all directors an opportunity to attend. For all other board meetings, reasonable notice should be given.

        • A.1.4

          Minutes of board meetings and meetings of board committees should be kept by a duly appointed secretary of the meeting and should be open for inspection at any reasonable time on reasonable notice by any director.

        • A.1.5

          Minutes of board meetings and meetings of board committees should record in sufficient detail the matters considered and decisions reached, including any concerns raised by directors or dissenting views expressed. Draft and final versions of minutes should be sent to all directors for their comment and records respectively, within a reasonable time after the board meeting is held.

        • A.1.6

          There should be a procedure agreed by the board to enable directors, upon reasonable request, to seek independent professional advice in appropriate circumstances, at the issuer's expense. The board should resolve to provide separate independent professional advice to directors to assist them perform their duties to the issuer.

        • A.1.7

          If a substantial shareholder or a director has a conflict of interest in a matter to be considered by the board which the board has determined to be material, the matter should be dealt with by a physical board meeting rather than a written resolution. Independent non-executive directors who, and whose close associates, have no material interest in the transaction should be present at that board meeting.

          Note: Subject to the issuer's constitutional documents, and the law and regulations of its place of incorporation, a director's attendance by electronic means including telephonic or videoconferencing may be counted as attendance at a physical board meeting.

        • A.1.8

          An issuer should arrange appropriate insurance cover in respect of legal action against its directors.

    • A.2 Chairman and Chief Executive

      • Principle

        There are two key aspects of the management of every issuer — the management of the board and the day-to-day management of business. There should be a clear division of these responsibilities to ensure a balance of power and authority, so that power is not concentrated in any one individual.

      • Code Provisions

        • A.2.1

          The roles of chairman and chief executive should be separate and should not be performed by the same individual. The division of responsibilities between the chairman and chief executive should be clearly established and set out in writing.

        • A.2.2

          The chairman should ensure that all directors are properly briefed on issues arising at board meetings.

        • A.2.3

          The chairman should be responsible for ensuring that directors receive, in a timely manner, adequate information, which must be accurate, clear, complete and reliable.

        • A.2.4

          One of the important roles of the chairman is to provide leadership for the board. The chairman should ensure that the board works effectively and performs its responsibilities, and that all key and appropriate issues are discussed by it in a timely manner. The chairman should be primarily responsible for drawing up and approving the agenda for each board meeting. He should take into account, where appropriate, any matters proposed by the other directors for inclusion in the agenda. The chairman may delegate this responsibility to a designated director or the company secretary.

        • A.2.5

          The chairman should take primary responsibility for ensuring that good corporate governance practices and procedures are established.

        • A.2.6

          The chairman should encourage all directors to make a full and active contribution to the board's affairs and take the lead to ensure that it acts in the best interests of the issuer. The chairman should encourage directors with different views to voice their concerns, allow sufficient time for discussion of issues and ensure that board decisions fairly reflect board consensus.

        • A.2.7

          The chairman should at least annually hold meetings with the independent non-executive directors without the presence of other directors.

        • A.2.8

          The chairman should ensure that appropriate steps are taken to provide effective communication with shareholders and that their views are communicated to the board as a whole.

        • A.2.9

          The chairman should promote a culture of openness and debate by facilitating the effective contribution of non-executive directors in particular and ensuring constructive relations between executive and non-executive directors.

    • A.3 Board composition

      • Principle

        The board should have a balance of skills, experience and diversity of perspectives appropriate to the requirements of the issuer's business. It should ensure that changes to its composition can be managed without undue disruption. It should include a balanced composition of executive and non-executive directors (including independent non-executive directors) so that there is a strong independent element on the board, which can effectively exercise independent judgement. Non-executive directors should be of sufficient calibre and number for their views to carry weight.

      • Code Provisions

        • A.3.1

          The independent non-executive directors should be identified in all corporate communications that disclose the names of directors.

        • A.3.2

          An issuer should maintain on its website and on the GEM website an updated list of its directors identifying their role and function and whether they are independent non-executive directors.

      • Recommended Best Practice

        • A.3.3

          The board should state its reasons if it determines that a proposed director is independent notwithstanding that the individual holds cross-directorships or has significant links with other directors through involvements in other companies or bodies.

          Note: A cross-directorship exists when two (or more) directors sit on each other's boards.

    • A.4 Appointments, re-election and removal

      • Principle

        There should be a formal, considered and transparent procedure for the appointment of new directors. There should be plans in place for orderly succession for appointments. All directors should be subject to re-election at regular intervals. An issuer must explain the reasons for the resignation or removal of any director.

      • Code Provisions

        • A.4.1

          Non-executive directors should be appointed for a specific term, subject to re-election.

        • A.4.2

          All directors appointed to fill a casual vacancy should be subject to election by shareholders at the first general meeting after appointment. Every director, including those appointed for a specific term, should be subject to retirement by rotation at least once every three years.

        • A.4.3

          Serving more than 9 years could be relevant to the determination of a non-executive director's independence. If an independent non-executive director serves more than 9 years, his further appointment should be subject to a separate resolution to be approved by shareholders. The papers to shareholders accompanying that resolution should include the reasons why the board believes he is still independent and should be re-elected.

    • A.5 Nomination Committee

      • Principle

        In carrying out its responsibilities, the nomination committee should give adequate consideration to the Principles under A.3 and A.4.

      • Code Provisions

        • A.5.1

          Issuers should establish a nomination committee which is chaired by the chairman of the board or an independent non-executive director and comprises a majority of independent non-executive directors.

        • A.5.2

          The nomination committee should be established with specific written terms of reference which deal clearly with its authority and duties. It should perform the following duties:—

          (a) review the structure, size and composition (including the skills, knowledge and experience) of the board at least annually and make recommendations on any proposed changes to the board to complement the issuer's corporate strategy;
          (b) identify individuals suitably qualified to become board members and select or make recommendations to the board on the selection of, individuals nominated for directorships;
          (c) assess the independence of independent non-executive directors; and
          (d) make recommendations to the board on the appointment or re-appointment of directors and succession planning for directors, in particular the chairman and the chief executive.

        • A.5.3

          The nomination committee should make available its terms of reference explaining its role and the authority delegated to it by the board by including them on the GEM website and issuer's website.

        • A.5.4

          Issuers should provide the nomination committee sufficient resources to perform its duties. Where necessary, the nomination committee should seek independent professional advice, at the issuer's expense, to perform its responsibilities.

        • A.5.5

          Where the board proposes a resolution to elect an individual as an independent non-executive director at the general meeting, it should set out in the circular to shareholders and/or explanatory statement accompanying the notice of the relevant general meeting:

          1. the process used for identifying the individual and why the board believes the individual should be elected and the reasons why it considers the individual to be independent;
          2. if the proposed independent non-executive director will be holding their seventh (or more) listed company directorship, why the board believes the individual would still be able to devote sufficient time to the board;
          3. the perspectives, skills and experience that the individual can bring to the board; and
          4. how the individual contributes to diversity of the board.

        • A.5.6


    • A.6 Responsibilities of directors

      • Principle

        Every director must always know his responsibilities as a director of an issuer and its conduct, business activities and development. Given the essential unitary nature of the board, nonexecutive directors have the same duties of care and skill and fiduciary duties as executive directors.

      • Code Provisions

        • A.6.1

          Every newly appointed director of an issuer should receive a comprehensive, formal and tailored induction on appointment. Subsequently he should receive any briefing and professional development necessary, to ensure that he has a proper understanding of the issuer's operations and business and is fully aware of his responsibilities under statute and common law, the GEM Listing Rules, legal and other regulatory requirements and the issuer's business and governance policies.

        • A.6.2

          The functions of non-executive directors should include:

          (a) participating in board meetings to bring an independent judgement to bear on issues of strategy, policy, performance, accountability, resources, key appointments and standards of conduct;
          (b) taking the lead where potential conflicts of interests arise;
          (c) serving on the audit, remuneration, nomination and other governance committees, if invited; and
          (d) scrutinising the issuer's performance in achieving agreed corporate goals and objectives, and monitoring performance reporting.

        • A.6.3

          Every director should ensure that he can give sufficient time and attention to the issuer's affairs and should not accept the appointment if he cannot do so.

        • A.6.4

          The board should establish written guidelines no less exacting than the Model Code for relevant employees in respect of their dealings in the issuer's securities. "Relevant employee" includes any employee or a director or employee of a subsidiary or holding company who, because of his office or employment, is likely to possess inside information in relation to the issuer or its securities.

        • A.6.5

          All directors should participate in continuous professional development to develop and refresh their knowledge and skills. This is to ensure that their contribution to the board remains informed and relevant. The issuer should be responsible for arranging and funding suitable training, placing an appropriate emphasis on the roles, functions and duties of a listed company director.

          Note: Directors should provide a record of the training they received to the issuer.

        • A.6.6

          Each director should disclose to the issuer at the time of his appointment, and in a timely manner for any change, the number and nature of offices held in public companies or organisations and other significant commitments. The identity of the public companies or organisations and an indication of the time involved should also be disclosed. The board should determine for itself how frequently this disclosure should be made.

        • A.6.7

          Independent non-executive directors and other non-executive directors, as equal board members, should give the board and any committees on which they serve the benefit of their skills, expertise and varied backgrounds and qualifications through regular attendance and active participation.

          Generally they should also attend general meetings to gain and develop a balanced understanding of the views of shareholders.

        • A.6.8

          Independent non-executive directors and other non-executive directors should make a positive contribution to the development of the issuer's strategy and policies through independent, constructive and informed comments.

    • A.7 Supply of and access to information

      • Principle

        Directors should be provided in a timely manner with appropriate information in the form and quality to enable them to make an informed decision and perform their duties and responsibilities.

      • Code Provisions

        • A.7.1

          For regular board meetings, and as far as practicable in all other cases, an agenda and accompanying board papers should be sent, in full, to all directors. These should be sent in a timely manner and at least 3 days before the intended date of a board or board committee meeting (or other agreed period).

        • A.7.2

          Management has an obligation to supply the board and its committees with adequate information, in a timely manner, to enable it to make informed decisions. The information supplied must be complete and reliable. To fulfil his duties properly, a director may not, in all circumstances, be able to rely purely on information provided voluntarily by management and he may need to make further enquiries. Where any director requires more information than is volunteered by management, he should make further enquiries where necessary. So, the board and individual directors should have separate and independent access to the issuer's senior management.

          Note: In this Code, "senior management" refers to the same persons referred to in the issuer's annual report and required to be disclosed under rule 18.39.

        • A.7.3

          All directors are entitled to have access to board papers and related materials. These papers and related materials should be in a form and quality sufficient to enable the board to make informed decisions on matters placed before it. Queries raised by directors should receive a prompt and full response, if possible.